Sierra Leone is bordered for the north-west, south and north-east by the Republic Guinea, on the south-east by the Republic of Liberia and on south-west by simply the Atlantic Sea. It has a good area of 27, 925 square mls. The colony of Sierra Leone originated from the sale in addition to cession in 1787 by native chiefs to English settlers of a piece regarding land intended like a home for African-american settlers who have been waifs working in london plus later it seemed to be used as a new settlement for separated African slaves. Typically the hinterland was declared a British Protectorate on 21st Aug, 1896. Sierra Leone attained independence on 27th April, 61 and became a new Republic in 1971. Education is provided by both personal and state-sponsored schools. The current program of education is definitely 6-3-4-4 (that is six years Principal school, 3 years Jr Secondary School, 4 years Senior Secondary School and 4 years tertiary/higher education. This specific system is complemented by non- conventional education.
CONCEPT REGARDING SCHOOLING
Education is definitely frequently utilized in typically the sense of coaching in the classroom, laboratory, workshop or even domestic science place and consists mostly in the imparting by simply the teacher, in addition to the acquisition simply by pupils, of details and mental while well as manual skills. A larger meaning than coaching is that associated with schooling. Frankly just about all that goes about in the school as part of the pupil’s life there. It provides, among other things, relationship among pupils and instructors, pupils and enrollees both in plus outside the college. M. S. Mill (1931) opined that whichever helps to form the human being; to make the individual what he or she is or hinder him from being what he could be not really is section of the education. Implicitly training is lifelong plus ubiquitous; it’s the sum total of just about all influences which go to produce a man or woman what he could be, by birth to loss of life. It includes the home, our neighbors, plus the street among other folks.
Education is to some extent a deliberate planned process devised and conducted by the educator together with the purpose regarding imbuing the novice with certain details, skills, of brain and body since well as methods of behavior regarded as desirable. In part it’s the learner’s personal respond to the environment in which he or she lives. Education offers three focal details: the individual/person after whom the educator’s influences are delivered to bear; the society or local community to which they belongs; and typically the whole context associated with reality within which the individual in addition to society play their own part. Man is usually a social animal; he grows being a person through the impact of personality on personality; in addition to even for his / her basic physical needs he depends upon what aid and cooperation associated with his fellow guys and women. Without society and the particular mutual support and even enrichment of encounters which it offers world is impossible and even the life of man, in Hobbes’ words, is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short. inches
One of the particular fundamental facts of human existence is the tension between the pull of the particular past and the particular forward urge into the future, in between stability and switch, tradition and innovation. For effective living, man has to have a circle of security, the area of recognized habits and relationship which forms reliable relationships. This is definitely also true regarding society. For its effective functioning presently there must be a fundamental continuity of practices and outlook which usually preserves its id as a modern society and safeguards that against the disruptive outcomes of change. Switch must be for lifetime and not static but this modify in turn must be controlled by the basic practices of society. That is tradition that gives a nation their character and distinctiveness as a culture. The conservation associated with tradition therefore is definitely obviously crucial.
It has been identified from time immemorial that the conservation of traditional training has an important part to perform in the development of the child. Typically the children more recently are the particular adults of tomorrow; they must learn therefore, to receive and perpetuate the beliefs and methods of life peculiar to the certain society to which they belong. Regarding every society provides the desire to preserve itself not simply physically but as group consciously sharing selected aims, ideals plus patterns of behaviour. This type involving education is not necessarily formal in schools by using class room instruction but that will effected indirectly through the family and with the impact on the subject of the individual regarding social influences plus customs which typically the child cannot evade. In Sierra Leone this social schooling included elaborate events of initiation concerning feats of stamina by which young men and women must prove themselves worthy of the community. Typically the ultimate goal was initially to produce an individual who was honest, respectful, competent, cooperative, and which could adapt to typically the social order regarding the day. While Aristotle once stated “the constitution involving a state will suffer if education and learning is neglected. The particular citizens of the state should often be educated to match the constitution in the state. جامعة المستقب of character best suited to a metabolism is the influence which continues to sustain it as this is also typically the state force which often originally created it” (p. I).
CLASSIC EDUCATION IN MODERN SOCIETY
Traditional education has both an innovative and even conservation function in society; this can be a highly effective means of preserving a society’s practices, if not culture. In past times the characteristics and needs of society played part in determining the size of education. Professor M. V. C. Jeffreys (1950) once had written in his publication, Glaucon, that “in a tranquil culture the educational system may tend to reflect the social pattern, whilst social uneasiness and even instability create possibility for using training as an instrument of social change”(p. 7). A identical view was discussed by John Dewey (1897) who opined that through education society can come up with its purposes, may organize its individual means and sources and thus help save itself with definiteness and economy in the direction in which usually it wishes to be able to move. Education appearances both to the past and the long term; inevitably it shows the traditions in addition to character of community. Traditional education can be used to prepare for changes in society and even anticipate and prevent modifications or the associated with changes in modern society.
Traditional education conserves and hands on the customs plus ways of lifestyle which constitute the smoothness of a community and maintains it is unity. It likewise helps society to be able to interpret its features in innovative ways in order to meet the challenges of change, searching for ways or traces of development that happen to be consistent with the particular traditions and practices and will as well raise society into a more complete satisfaction of itself.
CONVENTIONAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS THROUGHOUT SIERRA LEONE
Background reveals that at this time there were no elegant schools where children were educated in Pre-colonial Sierra Leone. The Poro and Bondo/Sande Secret Communities were looked upon seeing that institutions to teach children. They were bush schools. And the education these rose bush schools provided has been informal. Children who else went through these secret societies were deemed able to carrying out their civic duties. They became grown ups and can get married to and start existence. They considered them selves as one family. In other words equally Secret Societies create a sense of comradeship and unity between members irrespective of family, clan or perhaps ethnic affiliation. This was therefore deemed that children who had not gone through these secret communities were not fully matured.
The Poro Secret Society is for boys. Typically the spiritual head of the Poro Modern society is Pa Gbonu, seen only by older graduates or even members. The actual heads are typically the Pa Sama Yorgbors and Pa Somanos. They direct the activities of the establishment. The senior course instructors are the Pa Kashis, who generally teach and present instructions to other initiators. The Pa Manchiyas act as teachers to the initiates while the Kachemas will be the scaring tones. They scare typically the women and children alike alongside the new initiates. The Rakas are the charge boys carrying messages around. The Yambas are the head boys. The Bomos are the senior prefects as the Sayboms are usually the prefects; in addition to the monitors would be the Gbanaboms. Informal classes are held in the Secret Poro Bush. The subjects educated include Creative Practical Arts, Performing Artistry, Practical Agriculture, Medication i. e. using local herbs for that treatment of various ailments), warfare plus other skills. In Creative Practical Martial arts initiates are educated how to help to make fishing nets, baskets, mats, and etching wood and cleaning soap stones into distinct objects such while animals and human beings; in Performing Disciplines initiates are educated singing, dancing plus the use involving Poro musical musical instruments. In Practical Culture initiates practice gardening. Boys are taught to bear hardship with out complaint and develop familiar with it. Therefore they are taken to the farms of their teachers plus elders to do the job on pro recibo basis. However in the course of the harvest time of year initiates could move across these farms taking whatever they will need and eat with out being questioned by farm owners. Initiates are taught to respect elders and even use of firearms to kill pets or animals. In a related vein initiates are taught how in order to use guns within fighting in protection of their residential areas. Other skills initiates are taught consist of making fish traps, fishing and shopping net, and basketry. Within the use regarding herbs initiates spend money (some openly given) for curing various sicknesses as well as for protection against foes, evil spirits plus snake bites. Starts who want to cause damage to others applying herbs could ‘redeem’ the herb/medicine involved. Over all initiates are taught the new Language talked only by users called Ke Sornor. For example fonka trika meaning I will be talking to an individual; fonka bonomi that means Discuss. The use of this new Language makes teachers very proud and even feel different from non-initiates. Graduates come out with new names such because Lamp, Langba and even Kolerr. A graduating ceremony climaxes the particular event.